Elon Musk has become an internet sensation over the past couple of years, with his views about the future, funny personality along with his passion for technology. By now everyone knows him, either as that electric car guy, or that guy who builds flamethrowers. He is mostly active on his Twitter, where he shares everything, Even memes!
He inspires a lot of young people in the IT industry, and I wanted to do a fun little project, where I would create an AI that would generate text based on his previous Twitter postings. I wanted to encapsulate his style and see what kind of weird results I would get.
The data I am using was scraped directly from Elon Musk’s twitter, both his posts and replies. You can download the dataset at this link.
Importing the libraries:
import tensorflow as tf from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences from tensorflow.keras.layers import Embedding, LSTM, Dense from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential from tensorflow.keras.optimizers import Adam import numpy as np import pandas as pd import re
Now I’m gonna create the function that is going to get rid of all of the links, the hashtags, tags, and all the stuff that’s gonna confuse the model so that we’re left with clean text.
#import the data data_path = 'C:/Users/Dejan/Downloads/elonmusk.csv' data = pd.read_csv(data_path) #Function to clean the text def clean_text(text): '''Make text lowercase, remove text in square brackets,remove links,remove punctuation and remove words containing numbers.''' text = text.lower() #text = text.replace('%','') text = re.sub('[.*?]', '', text) text = re.sub('https?://S+|www.S+', '', text) text = re.sub('<.*?>+', '', text) #text = re.sub('[%s]' % re.escape(string.punctuation), '', text) text = re.sub('n', '', text) text = re.sub('w*dw*', '', text) text = " ".join(filter(lambda x:x!="@", text.split())) return text #Apply the function data['text'] = data['text'].apply(lambda x: clean_text(x)) data = data['text']
Let’s define a tokenizer, and apply it to the text. That is how we’re mapping all the words into their numeric representations. We do that because neural networks cannot take strings. If you’re new to that, there is a great series on Youtube by Lawrence Moroney, that I would suggest checking out below:
tokenizer = Tokenizer() tokenizer.fit_on_texts(data) total_words = len(tokenizer.word_index) + 1 print(total_words) #5952input_sequences =  for line in data: token_list = tokenizer.texts_to_sequences([line]) for i in range(1, len(token_list)): n_gram_sequence = token_list[:i+1] input_sequences.append(n_gram_sequence)
Now we will have to define max_length(all data needs to be padded to a fixed length, just like with Convolutions), and we also need to turn input_sequences into a numpy array.
max_sequence_length = max([len(x) for x in input_sequences]) input_sequences = np.array(pad_sequences(input_sequences, maxlen=max_sequence_length, padding='pre'))
We’re gonna create sequences of data, where we will use all the elements except the last one as our X, and the last element as the y, of our data. Also, our y is a one-hot representation of total_words, which can sometimes be a lot of data(if total_words is 5952, that means every y is of shape (5952, ))
# create predictors and label xs, labels = input_sequences[:,:-1],input_sequences[:,-1] ys = tf.keras.utils.to_categorical(labels, num_classes=total_words)
Below is the configuration of our model.
model = Sequential() model.add(Embedding(total_words, 80, input_length=max_sequence_length-1)) model.add(LSTM(100, return_sequences=True)) model.add(LSTM(50)) model.add(tf.keras.layers.Dropout(0.1)) model.add(Dense(total_words/20)) model.add(Dense(total_words, activation='softmax')) model.summary()Model: "sequential_1" _________________________________________________________________ Layer (type) Output Shape Param # ================================================================= embedding_1 (Embedding) (None, 56, 80) 476160 _________________________________________________________________ lstm_2 (LSTM) (None, 56, 100) 72400 _________________________________________________________________ lstm_3 (LSTM) (None, 50) 30200 _________________________________________________________________ dropout_1 (Dropout) (None, 50) 0 _________________________________________________________________ dense_2 (Dense) (None, 297) 15147 _________________________________________________________________ dense_3 (Dense) (None, 5952) 1773696 ================================================================= Total params: 2,367,603 Trainable params: 2,367,603 Non-trainable params: 0
I’ve tried a couple of optimizers, and I’ve found Adam to work the best for this example. Let’s compile and run the model:
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer='adam', metrics=['accuracy']) history = model.fit(xs, ys, epochs=200, verbose=1) #Output Epoch 196/200 1026/1026 [==============================] - 12s 12ms/step - loss: 0.7377 - accuracy: 0.8031 Epoch 197/200 1026/1026 [==============================] - 12s 12ms/step - loss: 0.7363 - accuracy: 0.8025 Epoch 198/200 1026/1026 [==============================] - 12s 12ms/step - loss: 0.7236 - accuracy: 0.8073 Epoch 199/200 1026/1026 [==============================] - 19s 18ms/step - loss: 0.7147 - accuracy: 0.8083 Epoch 200/200 1026/1026 [==============================] - 12s 12ms/step - loss: 0.7177 - accuracy: 0.8070
Let’s create a ‘for loop’, that will generate new text, based on seed_text and the number of words that we will define. This part of the code can look a little intimidating, but once you read each line carefully, you’ll see that we’ve already done something similar earlier.
for _ in range(next_words): token_list = tokenizer.texts_to_sequences([seed_text]) token_list = pad_sequences([token_list], maxlen=max_sequence_length - 1, padding='pre') predicted = np.argmax(model.predict(token_list), axis=-1) output_word = "" for word, index in tokenizer.word_index.items(): if index == predicted: output_word = word break seed_text += " " + output_word
Now is the time to play with our model. Woohoo!
seed_text = "Space is big" next_words = 20 Space is big conflation of cats a lot of civilization by spacex is making a few months of dragon is intense as we seed_text = "i think about flowers" next_words = 30 i think about flowers that on the future it are limited as you could brute force it with tankers to low earth orbit that’s probably faster than liquid temp in year we can have seed_text = "i want to colonize jupiter" next_words = 40 i want to colonize jupiter be words just be order to zero immediate future nor can we ourselves accurately predict what issues we will encounter on a short term fine grained level with in the house with it with a human part of the us
Space is a big conflation of cats!? Who would’ve known! As you can see, the outputs the model gives are silly, and they don’t make a lot of sense. As with all the deep learning models, there are a lot of things that could be tweaked, in order to generate better results. I’ll leave that to you.