Hello geeks and welcome in this article, we will cover NumPy.polyfit(). Along with that, for an overall better understanding, we will look at its syntax and parameter. Then we will see the application of all the theory part through a couple of examples. But at first, let us try to get a brief understanding of the function through its definition. The function NumPy.polyfit() helps us by finding the least square polynomial fit. This means finding the best fitting curve to a given set of points by minimizing the sum of squares. It takes 3 different inputs from the user, namely X, Y, and the polynomial degree. Here X and Y represent the values that we want to fit on the 2 axes. Up next, let us look at its syntax.

Contents of Tutorial



Given above is the general syntax of our function NumPy polyfit(). It has 3 compulsory parameters as discussed above and 4 optional ones, affecting the output in their own ways. Next, we will be discussing the various parameters associated with it.


1. X:array_like

It represents the set of points to be presented along X-axis.

2. Y:array_like

This parameter represents all set of points to be represented along the Y-axis.

3. Deg: int

This parameter represents the degree of the fitting polynomial.

4. rcond: float

It is an optional parameter that is responsible for defining a relative number condition of the fit. Singular values smaller than this relative to the largest singular values are ignored.

5.full: bool

This an optional parameter that switches the determining nature of the return value. By default, the value is set to false due to which only the coefficients are returned. If the value is specified to true, then the decomposition singular value is also returned.


This optional parameter represents the weights to apply to the y-coordinate of the sample points.

7.Cov:bool or str

This optional parameter if given and not false returns not Just an array but also a covariance matrix.


P: nadarray

It returns the polynomial coefficient with the highest power first.

residuals, rank, rcond

We get this only if the “full=True”. Residual is the sum of squared residuals of the least square fit.

V: ndarray

We get this only if the “full=false” and “cov=true”. Along with that we get a covariance matrix of the polynomial coefficient estimate.


Now let us look at a couple of examples that will help us in understanding the concept. At first, we will start with an elementary example, and moving ahead will look at some complex ones.

import numpy as ppool


[ -41.  165. -121.]

In the above example, we can see NumPy.polyfit(). At first, we have imported NumPy. Moving ahead we have defined 2 arrays X and Y. X here represents all the points we want to represent along the X-axis and similarly for Y. Then we have used our defined syntax name. polyfit(x,y, deg) and a print statement to get the desired output. In this example, we have not used any optional parameter.

Now let us see a more complex example.

import numpy as ppool
(array([-1.3260643e-15,  1.0000000e+00,  3.0000000e+00]), array([], dtype=float64), 3, array([1.67660833, 0.43259345, 0.04298142]), 6.661338147750939e-16)

In the above example, again, we have followed similar steps as in the above example. But this time, we have used the optional variable full and defined it as true. The difference can be spotted in the output as we get a residual.

Now let us look at one more example

import numpy as ppool


(array([-1.3260643e-15,  1.0000000e+00,  3.0000000e+00]), array([], dtype=float64), 3, array([1.67660833, 0.43259345, 0.04298142]), 6.661338147750939e-16)

Similar to the above example with the only difference of “cov.” For this example we have added cov =”true” and specified full=”false”. As a result of which in output, we get a covariance matrix.



In this article, we have covered NumPy.polyfit(). Besides that, we have also looked at its syntax and parameters. For better understanding, we looked at a couple of examples. We varied the syntax and looked at the output for each case. I hope this article was able to clear all doubts. But in case you have any unsolved queries feel free to write them below in the comment section. Done reading this, why not read NumPy digitize next.

Author: Shantun Parmar


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